中世紀的逼迫(一) 中世紀教會歷史

 

   

第十六篇 合一弟兄會與約翰康門紐

一、輔讀文獻

1. 歷史概述
2. 合一弟兄會歷史(英)
3. 約翰康門紐小傳
4. 康門紐話語摘錄

二、歷史景點

1. 那頓(Nardden)

三、討論題綱

1. 合一弟兄會的信仰
2. 康門紐的生平與著作 


歷史概述

1. 合一弟兄會(Unitas Fratrum)

1415年,約翰胡斯以異端之名被天主教燒死後,跟隨他的人遭遇極大的逼迫。胡斯的信徒分為三派,其中有一派既不與政治妥協,也不以武力抗爭,寧願為信仰受苦。其中一位彼得基利司基(Peter Chelischizki),寫下一本「信仰之網」,將教會比喻成一棟房子。這棟房子歷經多年,已成了一個倒塌焚毀的廢墟,而他們的目的,就是要從這些斷垣殘壁的瓦礫中,找出這棟房子的真正根基,逐漸加以恢復。這一班受逼迫的波希米亞信徒,躲在波希米亞的肯瓦谷(Kunwald)的村莊裡定居生活。1457年,他們依照聖經的原則,設立了教會,稱為「合一的弟兄們」(United Brothers),也就是摩爾維亞教會的前身。他們認為自己活著乃是為了要事奉神,應在凡事上為神而活。他們彼此相愛,互相勸勉,過著安靜與敬虔的生活。無論是生活或是事奉上,都為榮耀神而行。

波希米亞的信徒在肯瓦谷中平靜的過了五十年的生活。1515年,更正教在德國剛起步,信奉天主教的皇帝和教皇聯合起來攻擊新教信徒,幾乎將他們滅絕。之後,便一直有陸陸續續的逼迫。1548年,德皇下令將他們趕到波蘭,至終,他們在奧斯曹洛(Ostrorog)安頓,在那裡廣傳福音,建立教會。1556年,波希米亞皇帝准許他們回到家鄉,恢復聚會。教會大而興旺,遍及波希米亞、摩爾維亞和波蘭三省。1571年,一位波蘭貴族來到他們的聚會中,感嘆的說:「永生的神啊,我心裡充滿何等的喜樂,因為我所看見和所聽見的,的的確確讓我感覺在以弗所、帖撒羅尼迦、或其他使徒時代的教會中。我親耳聽見,也親眼看見自己在新約書信中所讀到的一切…」。1579至1593年間,他們將聖經譯為捷克文,這個版本成了今天捷克文聖經的藍本,也是捷克現代文學的基礎。

合一弟兄會中的貴族,為了避免弟兄會隨時受到逼迫,一心想要將其立為波希米亞國教。1609年,在貴族的要脅下,波希米亞國王簽署了宗教自由的憲章,政府成立「維護宗教委員會」,負責執行保護新教的信仰聲明。爾後腓德烈登上波希米亞皇位,與耶穌會和信奉天主教的大臣聯手,廢止信仰自由的保障。兩方衝突越演越烈,終於於1620年,在布拉格城外展開了「白山之戰」。天主教大勝,27名保護新教的貴族被斬首,國內產生暴動,許多人攜老扶幼離開了波希米亞與摩爾維亞,人數多達三萬六千的家庭。整個十七世紀,長達一百年之久,合一弟兄會的信徒都只能在暗中敬拜神,成了「隱藏的種子」。弟兄會最後一位領導人康門紐(John Amos Comenius)曾寫到:「經歷告訴我們,有的時候,神讓某些教會被毀壞,但卻會興起別的教會,或使他們在別處重新興起。神要使一個教會在原地復活、死去、還是在別處復興,我們並不知道。…召著神自己的應許,福音總是要被那些受過神正當管教的基督徒,傳給地上其他的人民。因此…我們的損失,要成為世人的祝福。」另一位喬治耶斯克(George Jaeschke)也說過類似的話:「好像現在弟兄們的教會已經到了盡頭,但是親愛的孩子,你們將要看見一個大的拯救,是一切遺留下來之人的份。我不知道這個拯救會臨及摩爾維亞本土,還是你們得離開這個巴比倫之地;無論如何,我深信這個拯救就要實現。…有一個避難的地方為你們預備,在那裡,你們能夠沒有懼怕的,照著主的聖言事奉祂。」耶克斯的兒子與孫子,就是第一批帶著妻子兒子,踏上新生鐸夫莊園的摩爾維亞信徒。

2. 約翰康門紐(John Amos Comenius,1592-1670)生平簡述

康門紐於1592年,出生於摩爾維亞的尼布尼茲(Nivnitz)。他的父親馬丁康門紐是一位敬虔的合一弟兄會信徒,子女除了康門紐外,還有兩個女兒。康門紐十歲那年,父親去世;之後的兩年內,母親和兩個姊妹也相繼去世,無依無靠的康門紐投靠史翠斯尼茲(Strassnitz)的伯母,在那裡接受了初步的學校教育。1608年,康門紐進入摩爾維亞弟兄會所辦的普雷勞(Prerau)拉丁學校,正式接受中等教育。兩年之後,進入德國納塞(Nassau)的黑爾本(Herborn)大學就讀。

1618年開始,康門紐在富尼克(Fulneck)牧養合一弟兄會。1620年白山之戰爆發,天主教大勝,西班牙軍隊進入富尼克,他只好逃難到薛勒帖查爾士(Charles of Zerotin)的城堡避難,成了當地弟兄們的領袖。他在古堡中寫了一本名為「世界迷宮與心靈樂園」的書,性質類似「天路歷程」,以寓言的方式陳述人在世上找不到平安,唯有內住的基督,才是人真正的平安。後來,康門紐被迫再度逃難,他帶著最後一批摩爾維亞信徒,離開本地。途中因飢餓和瘟疫,康門紐的妻兒相繼去世,但他仍激勵信徒,神必會為他們留一些「隱藏的種子」。摩爾維亞的信徒逃到了波蘭的里薩(Lissa)棲身,康門紐在當地的學校任職。1650年,康門紐寫下了「臨危母親的見證」,書中說到,那懷育信徒的母親─教會,已經成了喝醉兒女之血的魔鬼,眾姊妹─福音派教會應悔改,離開那褻瀆神的巴比倫稱。他也呼籲一切誠實呼求主名的人,在真理中彼此連結,合而為一;回到聖經中最基本和最重要的真理根基上,逃避沒有知識的熱心,並藉著交通,得著神的憐憫,耶穌的寶貴,以及聖靈的恩賜。」爾後波蘭遭遇逼迫,康門紐又帶著信徒逃往荷蘭,並於1670年逝於荷蘭。 

 

HISTORY OF THE ANCIENT UNITAS FRATRUM (1457-1722)
(本文摘自http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02616a.htm)

The Bohemian Brethren are a link in a chain of sects beginning with Wyclif (1324-84) and coming down to the present day. The ideas of the Englishman found favour with Hus, and Bohemia proved a better soil for their growth than England. Both Wyclif and Hus were moved by a sincere desire to reform the Church of their times; both failed and, without intending it, became the fathers of new heretical bodies - the Lollards and the Hussites. The former were persecuted out of existence in England by Catholic rulers; the latter prospered in Bohemia, thanks to royal and national support. The burning of John Hus at the stake for his stubborn adherence to the condemed doctrines of Wyclif (at Constance, 6 July, 1415) was considered an insult to the faith of the Bohemian nation, which, since its first conversion to Christianity, had never swerved from the truth. The University of Prague came boldly forward to vindicate the man and his doctrines; the party which hitherto had worked at reforming the Church from within now rejected the Church's authority and became the Hussite sect. Divisions at once arose amongst its members. Some completely set aside the authority of the Church and admitted no other rule than the Bible; others only demanded Communion under both kinds for the laity and free preaching of the Gospel, with some minor reforms. The former, who met for worship at "Mount Tabor", were called Taborites; the latter received the name of Calixtines, i.e., the party of the Chalice. As long as they had a common enemy to fight they fought together under the leadership of that extraordinary man, John Trocznowski, known as Zizka (the one-eyed), and for fully fifteen years proved more than a match for the imperial armies and papal crusaders sent to crush them. Peace was at length obtained, not by force of arms, but by skilful negotiations which resulted in the "Compactata of Basle" (30 November, 1433). The compact was chiefly due to the concessions made by the Calixtine party; it found little or no favour with the Taborites. The discontent led to a feud which terminated at the Battle of Lippau (30 May, 1434) with the death of Procopius, the Taborite leader, and the almost total extinction of this party. The small remnant, too insignificant to play a role in politics, withdrew into private life, devoting all their energies to religion. In 1457 one section formed itself into a separate body under the name of the "Brethren's Union" (Unitas Fratrum), which is now generally spoken of as the Bohemian Brethren. Their contemporaries coined for them several opprobrious designations, such as Jamnici (cave-dwellers) and Pivnicnici (beerhouse men), Bunzlau Brethren, Picards (corrupted to Pickarts), etc. 

The originator of the new sect was a certain Gregory, a nephew of the leading Calixtine preacher, Rokyzana, whose mind was imbued with the conviction that the Roman Church was helplessly and hopelessly corrupt. Gregory therefore decided to found a new Church in accordance with his uncle's and his own ideas of what a perfect Church should be. Through Rokyzana's influence he obtained leave from the governor George von Podiebrad to organize a community in the village of Kunwald near Senftenberg. Michel, the parish priest of Senftenberg, and Matthias, a farmer of Kunwald, joined Gregory, and soon the community counted several thousand members. Their distinguishing tenets at this early period were rather vague: abolition of all distinctions of rank and fortune, the name of Christian being the one all-sufficient dignity; abolition of oaths, of military service, etc. Governor von Podiebrad kept a vigilant eye on the growing community. In 1461 he had Gregory and several other persons arrested on suspicion of reviving the heresies of the Taborites. The accused admitted that they did not believe in the real presence of Christ in the Holy Eucharist, but had partaken of the bread and wine at their nocturnal meetings as common food. They were set free, but, to avoid further interference, Gregory and his companions fled into the Lordship of Reichenau, where they lived hidden in the mountains. There, in 1464, was held a secret assembly consisting of Brethren from Bohemia and Moravia, who accepted as basis of their creed the doctrine that justification is obtained through faith and charity and confers the hope of eternal salvation. The rich were requested to abandon their wealth and worldly pomp and to live in voluntary poverty. The Brethren were to give up private property for the benefit of the Brotherhood. Anyone not observing the brotherhood of faith and practice was to be separated from the community. 

Meanwhile the persecution continued. The Utraquist (Calixtine) priests refused the Sacrament to the Brethren. These, therefore, were forced to constitute a priesthood of their own belief. A bishop and a number of priests were chosen by lot, and the separation from the Utraquists became an accomplished fact. The head of the Austrian Waldenses, who was believed to have received consecration from a real bishop, gave episcopal orders to the ex-parish priest, Michael, and Michael consecrated his friend, Matthias, bishop and ordained several priests. The new Bishop Matthias of Kunwald then reordained his consecrator, to make him a true priest of the Brotherhood. This happened in 1467 at the synod of Lhotka, near Reichenau, where also all those present were rebaptized. The breach with both Catholics and Utraquists was now completed, and the Brethren began to order their community on the model of "the primitive Church". The governing power centred in a council presided over by a judge. Four seniors, or elders, held the episcopal power. The priests had no property and were encouraged to celibacy. The strictest morality and modesty were exacted from the faithful. All acts subservient to luxury were forbidden; oaths and military service were only permitted in very exceptional cases. Public sins had to be publicly confessed, and were punished with ecclesiastical penalties or expulsion. A committee of women watched with relentless severity over the behaviour of their sisters. 

A new persecution quickly followed on the synod of Lhotka. The Brethren defended their cause in copious writings, but in 1468 many of them were imprisoned and tortured, one was burnt at the stake. The death of the governor George von Podiebrad in 1471 brought some relief. Brother Gregory died in 1473. From 1480 Lucas of Prague was the leading man. Thanks to him, and to toleration granted the Brethren by King Ladislaus II, the Brotherhood rapidly increased in numbers. By the end of the fifteenth century there were 400 communities. Pope Alexander VI's endeavour to reconvert the Brethren (in 1499) proved futile. About this time an internal feud in the "Unity of Brethren" led to a renewal of persecution. The Amosites, so called from their leader, Brother Amos, accused their more moderate Brethren of fomenting violent opposition to the Government in imitation of their spiritual ancestors, the Taborites. King Ladislaus II thereupon issued a decree prohibiting the meetings of the Brethren under heavy penalties. In many places, however, the decree was left unheeded, and powerful landowners continued to protect the Brotherhood. Once more the king resorted to milder measures. In 1507 he invited the chiefs of the Brethren to meet the Utraquists in conference at Prague. The Brethren sent a few rude, unlettered fellows unable to give answer to the questions of the professors. The king regarded this as an insult and ordered all the meetings of the "Pickarts" to be suppressed, all their books to be burnt, and the recalcitrants to be imprisoned (1508). 

The Brethren now began to look for foreign sympathy. Erasmus complimented them on their knowledge of truth, but refused to commit himself further. Luther objected to their doctrine on the Eucharist, to the celibacy of their clergy, to the practice of rebaptizing, and to the belief in seven sacraments. Brother Lucas answered in a sharp pamphlet and, having ascertained the low standard of church discipline among the Lutherans of Wittenberg, ceased all attempts at union. At the same time (1525) Lucas rejected the Zwinglian doctrines which some Brethren were trying to introduce. After the death of Lucas (1528) the government of the Brotherhood passed into the hands of men fond of innovations, among whom John Augusta is the most remarkable. Augusta reopened negotiations with Luther and so modified his creed that it gained the Reformer's approbation, but the union of the two sects was again prevented by the less rigid morals of the Lutherans in Bohemia and Moravia. Augusta pleaded for stricter church discipline, but Luther dismissed him, saying: "Be you the apostle of the Bohemians, I will be the apostle of the Germans. Do as circumstances direct, we will do the same here" (1542). Soon afterwards the Bohemian Estates were requested to join Charles V in his war against the Smalkaldic league. Catholics and old Utraquists obeyed, but the Bohemian Protestants, having met in the house of Brother Kostka, established a kind of provisional government composed of eight members, four of whom belonged to the Brotherhood, and appointed a general to lead the armed rebels into Saxony against the emperor. Charles's victory over the Smalkaldians at Muhlberg (1547) left the rebels no choice but to submit to their king, Ferdinand I. The Brethren, who had been the chief instigators of the rebellion, were now doomed to extinction. John Augusta and his associate, Jacob Bilek, were cast into prison; the Brethren's meetings were interdicted throughout the whole kingdom; those who refused to submit were exiled. Many took refuge in Poland and Prussia (1578); those who remained in the country joined, at least pro forma, the Utraquist party. Owing to Maximilian II's leniency and Protestant propensities, the Bohemian diet of 1575 could draw up the "Bohemian Confession of Faith" in which the principles of the Brethren find expression along with those of the Lutherans. Under Rudolph II (1584) persecution was again resorted to, and lasted with more or less intensity down to 1609, when Rudolph's Charter granted the free exercise of their religion to all Protestants. No sooner, however, did external oppression relent than internal dissension broke out in the Protestant ranks. The Consistory, composed of Lutherans and Brethren, was unable to maintain peace and union between the two parties. Ferdinand II, after his victory over the rebellious Bohemians at the white Mountain near Prague (1620), offered them the choice between Catholicism and exile. Many Brethren emigrated to Hungary, but a greater number to northern Poland, where they settled in Lissa (now in Prussian Posen). Even to this day there are in that district seven communities calling themselves Brethren, although their confession of faith is the Helvetic. In Prussian Silesia there are also three communities of Brethren claiming descent from the Bohemian Brotherhood. 

 

約翰康門紐小傳
(本文轉載自http://www.nioerar.edu.tw/basis1/693/a37.htm)


林來發

康門紐(德文為Johann Amos Comenius其祖國的捷克文為Jan Amos Komensky)於西元一五九二年三月二十八日,出生於現在捷克摩拉比亞(Moravia)東部恩格里西.普羅德(Ungarish-Brod)的近郊尼布尼茲(Nivnitz)。這一年正是西歐近世科學家伽利略(Galileo Galilei 1564-1642)發明溫度計的一年,亦是被稱為近世哲學之父的笛卡爾(Rene Descartes 1596-1650)誕生的前四年。

康門紐的父親馬丁.康門紐(Martin Comenius)是屬於摩拉比亞一致兄弟教會的虔誠教徒,在尼布尼茲經營麵粉商業,家境尚屬小康;子女除了康門紐外,還有兩個女兒。

康門紐出生不久,因為商業上的需要而舉家遷居於恩格里西.普羅德。不幸其父於一六○二年留下十歲的康門紐去世。不到兩年其母及兩個姊妹亦相繼去世,使康門紐成為缺少家庭溫暖的孤兒。其後五年,不得不依靠修特勞尼茲)Strassnitz)的伯母照顧,並接受初步的一般學校教育。

一六○八年(十六歲),進入摩拉比亞兄弟會所辦,為培養教會牧師及領導階級的普雷勞(Prerau)拉丁學校,正式接受中等教育。兩年之後轉入德國拿騷(Nassau)的黑爾本(Herborn)大學,在校肄業期間,不僅決心從教會牧師工作,同時對教育方法的研究亦發生濃厚興趣。當時黑爾本大學適有一位新進教授,在該大學任教,對年輕學徒康門紐有莫大的影響;這位教授就是後來於一六三○年編著出版百科全書的博學多才的學者阿爾斯德多)Johann Heinrich Alsted 1588-1638)。據說康門紐名著「大教授學」的許多重要觀念,均導源於阿爾斯德多的主張。一六一二年康門紐尚在黑爾本大學就讀的時候,拉德格(Wolfgang Ratke 1571-1635)曾發表其聞名的學校教育改革論,受到耶拿(Jena)及基森(Giessen)等著名大學的重視;據說康門紐亦從基森大學的教授處獲得該項文獻,閱讀之後深受感動。一六一三年,康門紐又轉學海德堡(Heidelberg)大學繼續學業,但不知何故僅僅一年即束裝回國,年僅二十二歲。

康門紐回國之後,因年齡過輕而不能參加神職工作,不得已前往其母校普雷勞拉丁學校任教。康門紐在黑爾本大學求學時期對教育方法已有研究,尤其非常同情拉德格的學校教育改革,現在既有機會參與實際工作,從經驗中引證其理論,於是著手研究拉丁語教學,親自試編教材,改進教學方法。兩年之後(一六一六年)出版拉丁語入門一書,這是康門紐的第一本著作。

一六一六年,康門紐正式受命摩拉比亞兄弟會牧師,派赴歐爾米茲(Olmutz)從事神職工作,任職兩年後調至福祿\克(Fulneck),並兼學校的視導。在這一年(一六一八年)舉行婚禮,對象為匈牙利籍。當時因宗教衝突而引起的三十年戰爭雖已爆發,但戰火尚未蔓延至福祿涅克,因此直至一六二○年的約三年之間,可說是康門紐一生中最為安定與幸福的時期。他一方面專心於神職的傳道工作及參與學校教育改革,同時為提高及充實附近居民的生活,曾特地派人至匈牙利輸入蜜蜂,普及養蜂事業。

一六二○年的年底,波希米亞新教徒大敗,西班牙軍入侵福祿涅克,康門紐不能不攜眷跟隨兄弟會教徒避難。逃難中不幸將私財及教學法有關的研究資料遺失殆盡。此後五年,幾乎都在動亂的國內到處奔波,過著不安定的生活;尤其不幸的是:戰亂期中瘟疫侵襲摩拉比亞,其愛妻及兩個兒子染病相繼去世,真是禍不單行。

一六二五年,兄弟會為顧慮教徒的安全,特指派康門紐及同伴二人,前往波蘭及其他各地,預作教會聖職者集體逃亡的安排,兩年後始返摩拉比亞。翌年得到新教者必須逃離摩拉比亞的命令,立即帶其續絃夫人(一六二四年結婚)及岳父(前宗教法院院長)隨同教會同事逃往波蘭的里薩(Lissa )。

康門紐到達里薩,即在當地的一所中學任教;一六三六年升為校長,直到一六四一年應聘前往倫敦之前,約有十二年過著比較安定的教學生活,同時陸續發表其論著,名聲亦日漸增高;尤其所著「語學入門」及「大教授學」,更是教育史上不可多得的重要著作。「語學入門」完成於一六三一年,當年印行,成為劃時代的拉丁文教科書,四十年代幾乎被翻譯成全歐洲各種不同語文,被廣泛採用為學校教科書。「大教授學」是用捷克文寫的,完成於一六三二年,原稿一直等到二百餘年之後的一八四九年才被發現而公開出版;另有其自行翻譯成拉丁文的稿子,完成於一六三九年,亦被棄於箱底,直到一六五七年才列入其自編教育學全集的第一卷而發表。

四 晚年生活

一六四一年,康門紐應英國友人哈爾特利布的邀請,離波赴英。他本想在英國提倡其汎智體系(Pansophia),並與朋友合作建立普及中心;但當時英國的國情遽然轉變,動盪不安,已達內亂邊緣,他的理想無法實現,遂於翌年)四二年)接受瑞典富商戴格爾(Ludgig de Geer)的邀請,前往瑞典。

他在瑞典滯留約七年,雖仍念念不忘其汎智體系的研究,但由於戴格爾有約在先,盼能對教科書之編輯提供具體改革意見,故除修訂「語學入門」外,僅於一六四七年又完成其次於「大教授學」的名著「最新語言教授法」。一六四八年,里薩的首席牧師逝世,康門紐被任命為繼任人選,於是兼程趕回有第二故鄉之稱的里薩。

一六五○年春天,他又應匈牙利領主勒克齊(Rakoczi)之聘請,前往薩諸士、帕達克設立新式學校。為博取市民的瞭解與支持,他曾連續發表數次的公開演講,頗為轟動;並於第二年(一六五一年)完成一本書,以新學校的辦學方針和具體辦法為內容,書名「汎智學校的輪廓」。一六五四年由於教會堅請他回里薩,故不得已離開匈牙利。

一六五五年,瑞典與波蘭交戰,翌年波軍襲擊駐有瑞典軍的里薩,康門紐又再度遭到戰亂之災,他的家財、手稿、藏書均付之一炬。一六五七年輾轉逃抵荷蘭的阿姆斯特丹,在戴格爾之子的接濟下,獲得暫時的安定;這時康門紐仍未放棄研究新教學法的工作,終於在一六五八年完成世人所稱頌又被公認為教科書最早採用圖畫的「世界圖繪」(Orbis Pictus) 。此書出版後先後被歐洲國家譯成十二種語文,少數亞洲國家也有譯本流行,並且流傳幾達二百年之久,直到一八一○年紐約市尚有美國版發行,可見其受歡迎的程度及影響之大。一六七○年十一月十五日,康門紐以七十八歲的高齡客死異邦。

 

康門紐話語摘錄
(本文摘自http://www.aboutbible.net/chr/C.04.ATitrationOfChristian.doc)

相爭-在哲學,宗教,政治的領域-是那麼激烈,如果 靠我們努力,實在沒有和好的餘地。但有上帝萬有的根 基,靠祂才有尋得和好的可能。因為神是同一位萬有的 神,一向如此:祂的大地無私的負載著我們,雖然我們盼望在我們的仇敵腳下開口,吞滅他們。...神是萬有的神,不論祂說甚麼,祂向所有願聽的人同樣說話。

如果我們注意自己的規條,書籍,工作,有千萬不同的 方向和方法,我們絕沒有和好的可能。但如果我們尊重 敬畏接受神對我們生活的意見,和好就非常容易。


那頓(Nardden)

那頓是荷蘭阿姆斯特丹市郊的小城市,城中有為紀念康門紐而建的博物館。館中有關於康門紐的影片介紹,使人認識這位傑出的神學家和教育家。

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